BitLox Hardware Mobile Crypto Wallet

The Market Place - An Anonymous Market Built To Enable Trustless Transactions.

The Marketplace, the secure anonymous marketplace built to enable safe trustless transactions.
[link]

Bitcoin Private

A subreddit to discuss Bitcoin Private. Like Bitcoin, but Private.
[link]

Monero: the secure, private, untraceable currency

This is the official subreddit of Monero (XMR), a secure, private, untraceable currency that is open-source and freely available to all.
[link]

Bitcoin-qt-i2p: A Bitcoin wallet for the I2P network.

submitted by p4bl0 to i2p [link] [comments]

In Light of CipherTrace, Let's Talk Opsec

So I was very skeptical at first, but Dave maybe convinced me about 10% that they have some level of capability in the direction they're suggesting. The techniques are stuff we've known, and it would require large computational resources, combined with loads of offchain data, but maybe they have taken efforts to the next level. It's my belief that govts and banks really dislike Monero. So with that in mind lets give them some small benefit of the doubt and take some creative license:
Again, they would need some serious computational power and off-chain data feeds. I also imagine that their models suffer from time-decay, especially without a constant stream of hueristic data. Notice at the end he emphasized opsec. Here, I really do believe him. So finally, lets talk opsec.
I have mixed feelings on this. One of our selling points is default privacy made easy. A lot of what I wrote above doesn't exactly sound simple. On the other hand, crypto is about self responsibility and knowledge. Most people ought to have been adhering to at least the basics (ToVPN, new subaddresses, run your own node). But even if we give CT the benefit of the doubt, the following is still true:
Newb use of Monero is far more private than ninja use of Bitcoin.
submitted by bawdyanarchist to Monero [link] [comments]

Official ColossusXT Q3 2020 AMA

Official ColossusXT Q3 2020 AMA
Welcome to the 11th official ColossusXT AMA! It has been an exciting year so far as we move closer to the launch of the Colossus Grid, and it's been interesting to see how COVID19 is affecting the world and the industry. The commitment to ColossusXT has never been stronger as we navigate these uncertain times due to COVID19. I will briefly go over development and business activities and if you have any additional questions about anything mentioned please drop a question in this AMA.
[DEV] As we move forward through Q3 the first thing you can expect is a mandatory wallet update in the coming weeks, this wallet update will allow you to convert your zCOLX back into COLX, along with some other notable features that we will dive into to discuss once the wallet is released. We're getting closer and closer to Armis release and the Colossus Grid release, which will prove to be an exciting time for the community to participate in testing and/or marketing activities.
[BIZ] We recently submitted a Project Pitch regarding ColossusXT to the National Science Foundation and have been invited to submit a full proposal. Should our proposal be accepted by the National Science Foundation we will be awarded 256,000 dollars for additional ColossusXT development, and continue onto Phase 2 proposals which will open up additional opportunities for ColossusXT research partnerships and additional funding opportunities.

https://preview.redd.it/gvypc52tjcm51.png?width=682&format=png&auto=webp&s=35af9143dea8f2294dc8c4c799810cee4add6e47
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This AMA will start on 10 September and end on 30 September.
The team will review and answer your questions no later than 14 October.
Before the AMA begins, everyone from the community can ask questions on this page and upvote/downvote according to your interest.
Rules:
Please do not reply to other user's questions until the team has answered. Try to be precise with your questions and be polite.
Contest: One person who asks a question will be chosen to receive 100,000 ColossusXT (COLX) and a ColossusXT T-Shirt!

https://preview.redd.it/cz6lixhzicm51.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=30ec43751a5556d11c5f26c3f7ab4a044494c73e

Processing img imldoefxgkm51...
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About ColossusXT (COLX):
ColossusXT is an open-source, community-driven, environmentally conscious cryptocurrency, and an alternative to bitcoin that features better anonymity. It allows people to store and invest their wealth in a non-government-controlled currency and make almost instantaneous and completely anonymous transfers with close to zero fees. Colossuscoin V1 was founded as a long-standing, energy-efficient and environmentally friendly digital cryptocurrency and this concept is being continued.
The question format can be seen below:
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Q: What is the Colossus Grid?
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A: ColossusXT is an anonymous blockchain through obfuscation, along with the utilization of Armis (I2P). These features will protect end-user privacy as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. The Colossus Grid will connect devices in a peer-to-peer network enabling users and applications to rent the cycles and storage of other users’ machines. This marketplace of computing power and storage will exclusively run on COLX currency. These resources will be used to complete tasks requiring any amount of computation time and capacity, or allow end-users to store data anonymously across the COLX decentralized network. Today, such resources are supplied by entities such as centralized cloud providers which are constrained by closed networks, proprietary payment systems, and hard-coded provisioning operations. Any user ranging from a single PC owner to a large data center can share resources through Colossus Grid and get paid in COLX for their contributions. Renters of computing power or storage space, on the other hand, may do so at low prices compared to the usual market prices because they are only using resources that already exist.
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Q: Why does your blockchain exist and what makes it unique?
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A: ColossusXT exists to provide an energy-efficient method of supercomputing. ColossusXT is unique in many ways. Some coins have one layer of privacy. ColossusXT and the Colossus Grid will utilize two layers of privacy through obfuscation, and Armis (I2P) these will protect users of the Colossus Grid as they utilize grid resources. There are also Masternodes and Proof of Stake which both can contribute to reducing 51% attacks, along with instant transactions and zero-fee transactions. This protection is paramount as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. Grid Computing will have a pivotal role throughout the world, and what this means is that users will begin to experience the Internet as a seamless computational universe. Software applications, databases, sensors, video, and audio streams-all will be reborn as services that live in cyberspace, assembling, and reassembling themselves on the fly to meet the tasks at hand. Once plugged into the grid, a desktop machine will draw computational horsepower from all the other computers on the grid.
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Important Information:
Website
Whitepaper
Roadmap
Business Plan
Wiki
Governance
Partners
GitHub
What is ColossusXT? (YouTube)
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Follow ColossusXT on:
Twitter
Facebook
Telegram
Discord
Forums
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Interested in joining the ColossusXT team?
Contribute to an Idea!
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AMA History:
2018 Q1 2018 Q2 2018 Q3 2018 Q4
2019 Q1 2019 Q2 2019 Q3 2019 Q4
2020 Q1 2020 Q2
submitted by PioyPioyPioy to ColossuscoinX [link] [comments]

On F-Droid apps and bitcoin donations

The recent post on FOSS android apps and how they can earn money made me curious about their bitcoin donations, so I slapped together a quick script, grabbed the donation addresses from the F-Droid metadata and queried their total received amount.
The result, sorted by total received and valued using some value of today (9366.36 EUR per BTC)

Package address total EUR
net.i2p.android.router 1BPdWwovytfGdBwUDVgqbMZ8omcPQzshpX 100.35295704 939941.92
net.i2p.android 1BPdWwovytfGdBwUDVgqbMZ8omcPQzshpX 100.35295704 939941.92
com.piratebayfree 1KeBs4HBQzkdHC2ou3gpyGHqcL7aKzwTve 76.80127006 719348.34
org.asnelt.derandom 1NZz4TGpJ1VL4Qmqw7aRAurASAT3Cq5S6s 60.84434648 569890.05
com.nononsenseapps.notepad 16DUL1X4yARfM88GN7TV6Y3wQwqrstJs7A 58.40632213 547054.64
ch.blinkenlights.android.vanilla 1adrianERDJusC4c8whyT81zAuiENEqub 52.62216723 492878.16
org.fdroid.fdroid.privileged.ota 15u8aAPK4jJ5N8wpWJ5gutAyyeHtKX5i18 52.00899644 487134.98
org.fdroid.fdroid.privileged 15u8aAPK4jJ5N8wpWJ5gutAyyeHtKX5i18 52.00899644 487134.98
org.fdroid.fdroid.ota 15u8aAPK4jJ5N8wpWJ5gutAyyeHtKX5i18 52.00899644 487134.98
org.fdroid.fdroid 15u8aAPK4jJ5N8wpWJ5gutAyyeHtKX5i18 52.00899644 487134.98
org.fdroid.basic 15u8aAPK4jJ5N8wpWJ5gutAyyeHtKX5i18 52.00899644 487134.98
de.k3b.android.lossless_jpg_crop 15u8aAPK4jJ5N8wpWJ5gutAyyeHtKX5i18 52.00899644 487134.98
org.calyxinstitute.vpn 14wntQ8cBdnhUVfYmDjXz6PbpSSX8nCtkr 17.65221369 165336.99
de.tutao.tutanota 3MDrR5gaMvL8sphuQLX6BvPPKYNArdXsv6 10.30485934 96519.02
net.osmand.plus 1GRgEnKujorJJ9VBa76g8cp3sfoWtQqSs4 8.49212217 79540.27
me.tripsit.tripmobile 1EDqf32gw73tc1WtgdT2FymfmDN4RyC9RN 7.00970601 65655.43
player.efis.pfd 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.mfd 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.data.zar.aus 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.data.usa.can 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.data.sah.jap 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.data.pan.arg 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.data.eur.rus 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
player.efis.cfd 1KKWRF25NwVgNdankr1vBphtkLbX766Ee1 5.0014 46844.91
com.nutomic.zertman 1NUqm2kyaiRdssFaxYd7CQaWy4og19xH5g 5.0 46831.80
com.nutomic.ensichat 1DmU6QVGSKXGXJU1bqmmStPDNsNnYoMJB4 4.99995 46831.33
com.brentpanther.litecoinwidget 15SHnY7HC5bTxzErHDPe7wHXj1HhtDKV7z 4.29288259 40208.68
com.brentpanther.ethereumwidget 15SHnY7HC5bTxzErHDPe7wHXj1HhtDKV7z 4.29288259 40208.68
com.brentpanther.bitcoinwidget 15SHnY7HC5bTxzErHDPe7wHXj1HhtDKV7z 4.29288259 40208.68
com.brentpanther.bitcoincashwidget 15SHnY7HC5bTxzErHDPe7wHXj1HhtDKV7z 4.29288259 40208.68
im.vector.alpha 1LxowEgsquZ3UPZ68wHf8v2MDZw82dVmAE 3.65680571 34250.96
in.p1x.tanks_of_freedom 18oHovhxpevALZFcjH3mgNKB1yLi3nNFRY 3.59251169 33648.76
com.veken0m.bitcoinium 1yjDmiukhB2i1XyVw5t7hpAK4WXo32d54 3.49440553 32729.86
com.vuze.android.remote 15j7vKgJbixQFZ6AvEFw2BhtA4KG7E14JZ 2.52566983 23656.33
at.bitfire.nophonespam 1KSCy7RHztKuhW9fLLaUYqdwdC2iwbejZU 2.40361077 22513.08
at.bitfire.icsdroid 1KSCy7RHztKuhW9fLLaUYqdwdC2iwbejZU 2.40361077 22513.08
at.bitfire.gfxtablet 1KSCy7RHztKuhW9fLLaUYqdwdC2iwbejZU 2.40361077 22513.08
at.bitfire.davdroid 1KSCy7RHztKuhW9fLLaUYqdwdC2iwbejZU 2.40361077 22513.08
at.bitfire.cadroid 1KSCy7RHztKuhW9fLLaUYqdwdC2iwbejZU 2.40361077 22513.08
com.wireguard.android 1ASnTs4UjXKR8tHnLi9yG42n42hbFYV2um 2.36196229 22122.99
net.sourceforge.wifiremoteplay 1LKCFto9SQGqtcvqZxHkqDPqNjSnfMmsow 2.20225896 20627.15
net.sourceforge.opencamera 1LKCFto9SQGqtcvqZxHkqDPqNjSnfMmsow 2.20225896 20627.15
org.witness.sscphase1 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
org.torproject.android 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
org.havenapp.main 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.ripple 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.pixelknot 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.otr.app.im 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.orfox 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.notepadbot 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.locationprivacy 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.lildebi 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.gilga 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.courier 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.checkey 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.cacert 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
info.guardianproject.browser 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
at.or.at.plugoffairplane 1Fi5xUHiAPRKxHvyUGVFGt9extBe8Srdbk 2.00473917 18777.11
sk.baka.aedict 1KJyEutxrm3yL7chvsciMJTvXahXoWE3Pw 2.0 18732.72
byrne.utilities.pasteedroid 1L44pgmZpeMsWsd24WgN6SJjEUARG5eY6G 1.93771879 18149.37
byrne.utilities.hashpass 1L44pgmZpeMsWsd24WgN6SJjEUARG5eY6G 1.93771879 18149.37
byrne.utilities.converter 1L44pgmZpeMsWsd24WgN6SJjEUARG5eY6G 1.93771879 18149.37
com.zoffcc.applications.zanavi 1ZANav18WY8ytM7bhnAEBS3bdrTohsD9p 1.3792561 12918.61
eu.domob.shopt 1domobKsPZ5cWk2kXssD8p8ES1qffGUCm 1.30931 12263.47
eu.domob.bjtrainer 1domobKsPZ5cWk2kXssD8p8ES1qffGUCm 1.30931 12263.47
eu.domob.angulo 1domobKsPZ5cWk2kXssD8p8ES1qffGUCm 1.30931 12263.47
eu.domob.anacam 1domobKsPZ5cWk2kXssD8p8ES1qffGUCm 1.30931 12263.47
libretasks.app 193Xb3sySr2oEMuJC6bqAov444rSyVczW 1.24689782 11678.89
com.ymber.eleven 12aDckQC6YHEn75zReQWxXFCivBBNXfRjM 1.19375821 11181.17
si.modrajagoda.didi 1FU27EyocpFFhexjoakSe7Hxvf4jD2KmFh 1.05 9834.68
com.nononsenseapps.feeder 1PdmeeGxB2iktvmtkGqwUNmYq7L9tnxjwE 1.02972708 9644.79
org.projectmaxs.transport.xmpp bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.wifichange bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.wifiaccess bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.smswrite bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.smssend bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.smsread bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.smsnotify bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.shell bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.ringermode bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.phonestateread bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.notification bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.nfc bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.misc bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.locationfine bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.filewrite bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.fileread bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.contactsread bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.clipboard bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.bluetoothadmin bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.bluetooth bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.module.alarmset bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
org.projectmaxs.main bc1qu482c0tngkcvx3q7mrm8zmuldrh2f2lrh26ym0 0.9995 9361.68
com.eibriel.reddot 1MD8wCtnx5zqGvkY1VYPNqckAyTWDhXKzY 0.923361 8648.53
org.briarproject.briar.android 1NZCKkUCtJV2U2Y9hDb9uq8S7ksFCFGR6K 0.59356774 5559.57
eu.faircode.email 13nUbfsLUzK9Sr7ZJgDRHNR91BJMuDuJnf 0.51806696 4852.40
de.robv.android.xposed.installer 1uAEzZrfJt96UHYQheUUC8gSp2TJdwdw3 0.49531493 4639.30
org.kontalk 14vipppSvCG7VdvoYmbhKZ8DbTfv9U1QfS 0.48859802 4576.38
hashengineering.groestlcoin.wallet_test 3BCeMXVny1HbDc4NK64UZs9oFjKZdajBfx 0.48 4495.85
hashengineering.groestlcoin.wallet 3BCeMXVny1HbDc4NK64UZs9oFjKZdajBfx 0.48 4495.85
org.disrupted.rumble 1PXXMinxQgYUPXzZq6BixZpJTFeiCLqDqD 0.44804797 4196.58
se.manyver 3NNGfHL96UrjggaBVQojF1mnGnXNx1SXv7 0.44135235 4133.86
org.schabi.sharewithnewpipe 16A9J59ahMRqkLSZjhYj33n9j3fMztFxnh 0.40426632 3786.50
org.schabi.openhitboxstreams 16A9J59ahMRqkLSZjhYj33n9j3fMztFxnh 0.40426632 3786.50
org.schabi.newpipelegacy 16A9J59ahMRqkLSZjhYj33n9j3fMztFxnh 0.40426632 3786.50
org.schabi.newpipe 16A9J59ahMRqkLSZjhYj33n9j3fMztFxnh 0.40426632 3786.50
org.mariotaku.twidere 1FHAVAzge7cj1LfCTMfnLL49DgA3mVUCuW 0.33555159 3142.90
de.gabbo.forro_lyrics 1MDjHkXQud77UJk6TqmGkjeyhmz67NfE6g 0.32967373 3087.84
org.disroot.disrootapp 1GNmDSXxpU1zaxEopKCJK2TzLh3dbZAxEA 0.32853919 3077.22
com.dfa.hubzilla_android 1GNmDSXxpU1zaxEopKCJK2TzLh3dbZAxEA 0.32853919 3077.22
com.watabou.pixeldungeon 1LyLJAzxCfieivap1yK3iCpGoUmzAnjdyK 0.30544626 2860.92
ca.pr0ps.xposed.entrustunblocker 15jv7w1AdCMkNpDaAQrPtwK3Lfxx5ggAKX 0.2981067 2792.17
ca.cmetcalfe.xposed.flatconnectivityicons 15jv7w1AdCMkNpDaAQrPtwK3Lfxx5ggAKX 0.2981067 2792.17
ca.cmetcalfe.xposed.disablebatterywarnings 15jv7w1AdCMkNpDaAQrPtwK3Lfxx5ggAKX 0.2981067 2792.17
ca.cmetcalfe.locationshare 15jv7w1AdCMkNpDaAQrPtwK3Lfxx5ggAKX 0.2981067 2792.17
eu.faircode.netguard 13vtPytVVqCwojmohAqsK61Tk4yGXSWpJK 0.28845628 2701.79
org.totschnig.myexpenses 1GCUGCSfFXzSC81ogHu12KxfUn3cShekMn 0.26904759 2520.00
com.termux.window 1BXS5qPhJzhr5iK5nmNDSmoLDfB6VmN5hv 0.2645677 2478.04
com.termux.widget 1BXS5qPhJzhr5iK5nmNDSmoLDfB6VmN5hv 0.2645677 2478.04
com.termux.tasker 1BXS5qPhJzhr5iK5nmNDSmoLDfB6VmN5hv 0.2645677 2478.04
com.termux.styling 1BXS5qPhJzhr5iK5nmNDSmoLDfB6VmN5hv 0.2645677 2478.04
com.termux.boot 1BXS5qPhJzhr5iK5nmNDSmoLDfB6VmN5hv 0.2645677 2478.04
com.termux.api 1BXS5qPhJzhr5iK5nmNDSmoLDfB6VmN5hv 0.2645677 2478.04
com.termux 1BXS5qPhJzhr5iK5nmNDSmoLDfB6VmN5hv 0.2645677 2478.04
se.leap.riseupvpn 1F3KowUJBfvocr1H6DRvwFxfETJ18e8Dp6 0.25404247 2379.45
eu.siacs.conversations.voicerecorder 1AeqNAcg85APAZj9BZfAjdFCC5zesqXp2B 0.25226604 2362.81
eu.siacs.conversations.legacy 1AeqNAcg85APAZj9BZfAjdFCC5zesqXp2B 0.25226604 2362.81
com.morphoss.acal 1C7ChLNbwiQNWS6BLCPNU5TzX3ve7Xup2m 0.24548194 2299.27
com.b44t.messenger 18e3zwis2raitdZVhEhHHT7xG6oXsZte9L 0.24530249 2297.59
com.achep.acdisplay 1GYj49ZnMByKj2f6p7r4f92GQi5pR6BSMz 0.23828669 2231.88
net.alegen.android.netclip 1862EpKxs4BGUM6Td2Gs83QCkVC889Eqja 0.23149008 2168.22
com.simplemobiletools.voicerecorder 19Hc8A7sWGud8sP19VXDC5a5j28UyJfpyJ 0.20711972 1939.96
com.simplemobiletools.thankyou 19Hc8A7sWGud8sP19VXDC5a5j28UyJfpyJ 0.20711972 1939.96
com.simplemobiletools.smsmessenger 19Hc8A7sWGud8sP19VXDC5a5j28UyJfpyJ 0.20711972 1939.96
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fr.renzo.wikipoff 1BAaxTvK1jkoFKf7qWF2C6M4UX1y86MxaF 0.0 0.00
fr.cph.chicago.foss 13WUmCX1AePEKFGv5U1qRgBockFahsm21o 0.0 0.00
fr.corenting.traficparis 3JmaEkuviReVdCG8fjqCs5LwQkaEGcTMtZ 0.0 0.00
eth.matteljay.mastermindy 14VZcizduTvUTesw4T9yAHZ7GjDDmXZmVs 0.0 0.00
design.codeux.authpass.fdroid 3NcBacCmJbYWpwxj6rWzpM7sx48etMrPtc 0.0 0.00
de.yaacc 1MUvbfNgunNCUtitCkoEEMgmQGZJJg4isj 0.0 0.00
de.vanitasvitae.enigmandroid 1EqhcKs1pZJhEmyCtbH3qtkHT3Y48MCoAT 0.0 0.00
de.schildbach.wallet_test bc1qglkj2svuu3xsktup5xla8u2wjzlu8mfzk6509r 0.0 0.00
de.naturalnet.zahnarztgeraeusche 1EAytSwn1u7tKTZ9sMDVCzDqe2nwVf4Pra 0.0 0.00
de.naturalnet.mirwtfapp 1EAytSwn1u7tKTZ9sMDVCzDqe2nwVf4Pra 0.0 0.00
de.k4ever.k4android 1KiwFPGCunGXF53DBTBf32cNTPXq9FbX5H 0.0 0.00
de.jkliemann.parkendd 1HBFDdz7dJeBE2c3zQmWnzeWCbHoZQ64dd 0.0 0.00
de.Cherubin7th.blackscreenpresentationremote 18QSJmV6Liia7Cau65JnEj2JyxEUCGE2oz 0.0 0.00
com.tritop.androsense2 1Dj4Xkz5KtsarmioEKuuZCBVjahr14dih4 0.0 0.00
com.toxtox.philosopherstonewidget 1KvYjRx1VozqUpiYSCMrEL6mo9LvmpCcNN 0.0 0.00
com.sanskritbasics.memory bc1q3xasvfn2c84dprkk2mxj5g7n6ujwylphu8qsf3 0.0 0.00
com.rockbyte.arxiv 1jokQaTneW1KCbCWsMdVtvPv6oSJ1H3tF 0.0 0.00
com.rigid.birthdroid 1BLEeqwXnJJbpaLHiskZ5WyJJRyEWqCAQZ 0.0 0.00
com.readrops.app bc1qlkzlcsvvtn3y6mek5umv5tc4ln09l64x6y42hr 0.0 0.00
com.onetwofivegames.kungfoobarracuda 1MVNsgRmLqgMoEoQu918ozFFiTaepF8Ti5 0.0 0.00
com.mdroid 18BqyV9mNbFLi5HNNnfUprnPJyJDFP59Xh 0.0 0.00
com.mareksebera.simpledilbert 1FpGN3kcZ3GQsaJgBa8rxGRJjBjJavu78g 0.0 0.00
com.marceljurtz.lifecounter 1HDdKd3uoxdvS8pBKKKxEkjoJqUuBiEjkL 0.0 0.00
com.llamacorp.equate 15KCzAPJvSJLUfjuTQgAgSiSwQu6uLiexC 0.0 0.00
com.kn.paper_foss_theme 1CYiRF6AncdNkxcWTRFf5Mxi7UaFhC3jFG 0.0 0.00
com.ideasfrombrain.search_based_launcher_v2 1NapZs8brWNifGk7QFemqTByczdBAAg9cA 0.0 0.00
com.gmail.anubhavdas54.whatsdeleted bc1qs50wst8x53ud5lr80wukhjcy6l7zpxf5mz5rtm 0.0 0.00
com.github.igrmk.smsq 32JdGEVP42WiVxsADa3Z65qn1xe2K7Yg3S 0.0 0.00
com.genonbeta.TrebleShot 1DBsq8aZjn54hnDYsRY7pTLb3HfsE1mSv8 0.0 0.00
com.example.root.analyticaltranslator 15WVb3LZWCsdZGjkNFBuELwt3U4zpnSgwa 0.0 0.00
com.emmanuelmess.simpleaccounting 1HFhPxH9bqMKvs44nHqXjEEPC2m7z1V8tW 0.0 0.00
com.easwareapps.marbleone_ad_free 1PNwD199whFao1rjMX82Zi5A7M5B6KB7be 0.0 0.00
com.easwareapps.g2l 1PNwD199whFao1rjMX82Zi5A7M5B6KB7be 0.0 0.00
com.easwareapps.f2lflap2lock_adfree 1PNwD199whFao1rjMX82Zi5A7M5B6KB7be 0.0 0.00
com.danhasting.radar 1EwgjPGYiChJ5vyBndt9ugzd963FiVc6gj 0.0 0.00
com.atop 15G2T13emQnJRMvA74Zr6Q71bBcaYBn71v 0.0 0.00
com.aptasystems.dicewarepasswordgenerator 1PbHGv88KH6SXw6d66uSFTUzW2aeqxvQ7V 0.0 0.00
com.andreasgift.totalzero 1Q9TinY9kWoNMWuiToHiGC9uxCk6Vd41Gb 0.0 0.00
com.anddevw.getchromium 188RxvRnSXSZZnjuDdLwNirHDfNusVPobh 0.0 0.00
at.tacticaldevc.panictrigger 1EVr5tm2kugffNy3RWPGFoug6X9v3GTxuJ 0.0 0.00
im.vector.riotx 1LxowEgsquZ3UPZ68wHf8v2MDZw82dVmAEa -1.0 -9366.36
im.vector.app 1LxowEgsquZ3UPZ68wHf8v2MDZw82dVmAEa -1.0 -9366.36
I know this is flawed, I found it interesting nonetheless
The post which inspired this: https://www.reddit.com/fossdroid/comments/hyral2/are_there_fossdroid_apps_that_are_making_money/
submitted by prcrst to fossdroid [link] [comments]

Official ColossusXT Q2 2020 AMA!

Official ColossusXT Q2 2020 AMA!
Welcome to the 10th official ColossusXT AMA! As we move into the 2nd half of 2020 we can look back and see how blockchain as a whole is moving forward, and we've seen how COVID-19 has affected the world globally. It's been interesting to hear from the community how it has affected everyone all over the world. Certainly ColossusXT has been affected along with many other blockchain projects, but since the entire team has been working remotely from all of the world from the start, the affect directly to us has been minimal.
Moving forward into 2020 we will be updating the roadmap, providing more social activities for the community to participate in, as many have participated in the Armis beta, and helping us resolve some bugs within the mobile wallet which is back up and running thanks to many of the dedicated community members. We will be listed on tokens.net, and will continue to bring alternative trading opportunities to the community, if there are certain exchanges you're interested in please don't hesitate to shout them at us here, and shout ColossusXT #COLX $COLX on social media. 2020 is sure to be an exciting year and we look forward to your questions. This is your opportunity to publicly gripe at us, or ask us any direct question about development, business, and/or financial progress of ColossusXT and the Colossus Grid.

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This AMA will start on 10 June and end on 30 June.
The team will review and answer your questions no later than 10 July.
Before the AMA begins, everyone from the community can ask questions on this page and upvote/downvote according to your interest.
Rules:
Please do not reply to other user's questions until the team has answered. Try to be precise with your questions and be polite.
Contest: One person who asks a question will be chosen to receive 100,000 ColossusXT (COLX) and a ColossusXT T-Shirt!

ColossusXT (COLX) Ask Me Anything

ColossusXT AMA Shirt
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About ColossusXT (COLX):
ColossusXT is an open source, community-driven, environmentally conscious cryptocurrency and an alternative to bitcoin that features better anonymity. It allows people to store and invest their wealth in a non-government controlled currency and make almost instantaneous and completely anonymous transfers with close to zero fees. Colossuscoin V1 was founded as an long-standing, energy-efficient and environmentally friendly digital cryptocurrency and this concept is being continued.
Question format can be seen below:
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Q: What is the Colossus Grid?
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A: ColossusXT is an anonymous blockchain through obfuscation, along with utilization of Armis (I2P). These features will protect end user privacy as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. The Colossus Grid will connect devices in a peer-to-peer network enabling users and applications to rent the cycles and storage of other users’ machines. This marketplace of computing power and storage will exclusively run on COLX currency. These resources will be used to complete tasks requiring any amount of computation time and capacity, or allow end users to store data anonymously across the COLX decentralized network. Today, such resources are supplied by entities such as centralized cloud providers which are constrained by closed networks, proprietary payment systems, and hard-coded provisioning operations. Any user ranging from a single PC owner to a large data center can share resources through Colossus Grid and get paid in COLX for their contributions. Renters of computing power or storage space, on the other hand, may do so at low prices compared to the usual market prices because they are only using resources that already exist.
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Q: Why does your blockchain exist and what makes it unique?
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A: ColossusXT exists to provide an energy efficient method of supercomputing. ColossusXT is unique in many ways. Some coins have 1 layer of privacy. ColossusXT and the Colossus Grid will utilize 2 layers of privacy through obfuscation, and Armis (I2P) these will protect users of the Colossus Grid as they utilize grid resources. There are also Masternodes and Proof of Stake which both can contribute to reducing 51% attacks, along with instant transactions and zero-fee transactions. This protection is paramount as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. Grid Computing will have a pivotal role throughout the world, and what this means is that users will begin to experience the Internet as a seamless computational universe. Software applications, databases, sensors, video and audio streams-all will be reborn as services that live in cyberspace, assembling and reassembling themselves on the fly to meet the tasks at hand. Once plugged into the grid, a desktop machine will draw computational horsepower from all the other computers on the grid.
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Important Information:
Website
Whitepaper
Roadmap
Business Plan
Wiki
Governance
Partners
GitHub
What is ColossusXT? (YouTube)
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Follow ColossusXT on:
Twitter
Facebook
Telegram
Discord
Forums
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Interested in joining the ColossusXT team?
Contribute an Idea!
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AMA History:
2018 Q1 2018 Q2 2018 Q3 2018 Q4
2019 Q1 2019 Q2 2019 Q3 2019 Q4
2020 Q1
submitted by PioyPioyPioy to ColossuscoinX [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to ethereum [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to privacycoins [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to ethtrader [link] [comments]

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4 votes and 2 comments so far on Reddit The I2P (Invisible Internet Project) is an anonymous communication system within the public Internet (a.k.a. the Clearnet). It is a peer-to-peer communications network that takes advantage of the Internet infrastructure but uses end-to-end encryption and other techniques to make its users anonymous.. Its use cases range from file sharing, messaging, chatting, emailing, cryptocurrencies and ... Tor usage seems to be fairly common with Bitcoin, but I have heard less about efforts of integrating with the I2P efforts. Tor and I2P both have their pros and cons, but I am curious to here about what I2P efforts have been made to this point and why more attention has so far focused on tor. I2P wurde erschaffen, um den Verkehr innerhalb des eigenen Netzwerkes zu regeln, was von Tor als versteckter Service bezeichnet wird. Tor hat 1.000 Exit Nodes, I2P nur eine. “ Der Programmierer begründet dies damit, dass man sich beim Verlassen des eigenen anonymen Netzwerkes immer vielen Risiken aussetzt, ob man will oder nicht. Fast jeder I2P-Anwender trägt zur Schnelligkeit des gesamten ... The only Bitcoin wallet for I2P currently is many years out of date. Thanks for any help or information you can give, I appreciate it. 0 comments. share. save hide report. 100% Upvoted. Log in or sign up to leave a comment log in sign up. Sort by. best. no comments yet. Be the first to share what you think! More posts from the Electrum community . 5. Posted by 6 days ago. MALWARE. Electrum ...

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